Java is a strongly- and statically-typed procedural, garbage-collected object-oriented programming language with syntax like that of the C language released by Sun Microsystems as a platform for hardware-independent applications, but only in a very limited sense. Java started as an in-house development tool by Gosling named Oak for the various Sun-supported platforms.

The downfall is that Java was built using Smalltalk and Self compiler technology, but is a less-expressive language, and requires interface signature dependencies that break the encapsulation promised by object-orientation. In particular, not all elements of Java are objects, including classes, literals, arrays, etc. In particular, only recently has genericity been introduced in even common extensions. However, a lot of research is performed in Java because of the money behind it, so we cannot fully ignore it.

See also OpenJava.

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