# Turing Machine

The first virtual machine (an abstract VM) successfully designed to embody universal computations is the Turing Machine.The principle of (Universal) Turing Machines, aka (U)TMs, is described (often with variations) in any book on the principles of Computing Theory.

- On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem Turing's seminal 1936 article (old link) from The Turing Digital Archive.
- Alan Turing web site, maintained by Andrew Hodges.
- Busy Beaver Turing Machine.

### Turing Machines as a general computing model

- Computers Are Not Turing Machines by Jef Raskin.
- Peter Wegner and his work on
*Interactions*: his thesis is that a UTM augmented with*Interactions*is more powerful than a bare UTM (similar to the argument of Jef Raskin).#### Pro

- Peter Rittgen notes on Wegner work (for example, his Why Church's Thesis Still Holds - Some Notes on Peter Wegner's Tracts on Interaction and Computability (.pdf)).
- Damjan Bojadziev again on Wegner work with the paper A note on interaction and incompleteness (.pdf) and the slides Why Interaction Is Not More Powerful Than Algorithms.

#### Against

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