Quotation in TUNES

What is quotation ?

So that we manipulate programs written in a language from another language (possibly the same), the meta-language, we need an embedding of base-level source as data for the meta-level system. This embedding may be more or less flexible: it may be dynamically invoked at runtime, or only at compile-time; it may allow for wide range of manipulations, or be but an indirection level before evaluation, without any possibility to effect sensible manipulations on code. In any case, such embedding is called "quoting", and is a very important topic in reflective systems. Indeed, quoting raises the fundamental question in a reflective system: what are the limits of an object? what are the limits of the system? what is to be explicit? what is to be implicit?

In Lisp, depending on what you need to preserve through kwoting, you have lots of variants of write, or just (lambda (x) `',x). Perl strings and regexp have the quotemeta function for that.

As far a theory goes, a very insightful account of the subject is made in Jean Goubault's papers about his computational interpretation of the S4 modal logic in terms of an lambda-eval-quote calculus, where naturally appear QUOTE, EVAL, KWOTE, QUASIQUOTE, UNQUOTE. Each plays its role, and the "quoting mechanism" is not complete if deprived of any one of them. Even then, you only have basic support for a one-minded quoting mechanism.

        Author={Jean Goubault},
        Title={{O}n {C}omputational {I}nterpretations
                of the {M}odal {L}ogic {S4}},
        Institution={University of Karlsruhe},

QUOTE is the syntactic meta-operator (or source code constructor) that embeds source code into representation of source code (a monomorphism from source code into data values). It is evaluated at parse/compile-time, not run-time.

EVAL is a base-level operator from values that are valid source code into values that coincides with external metatheoretic evaluation, i.e. EVAL is a function (not a special form) such that its application to (QUOTE ~X) is same as evaluation of ~X, for any source text ~X. Things actually get more complex with context, i.e., with state at the meta-level. Only purely combinatorial languages like Church's combinatory logic, unlambda, Joy, and more suches, needn't such meta-state. In categorical such pure combinatorial language, EVAL is a value the application of which is an endomorphism of the value space that coincides with external evaluation.

KWOTE is a base-level operator that yields a valid source code for a given object, such that for any value X, (EVAL (KWOTE X)) = X.

QUASIQUOTE and UNQUOTE are syntactic meta-operators to build partial expressions, higher-order expression builders, etc.

Jean Goubault's work, beyond the technical issue of confluence that constitutes the academic aspect of the papers, shows the expressive importance of QUASIQUOTE and UNQUOTE. Without such a mechanism, QUOTE/KWOTE and EVAL would be but boxing and unboxing; it would be impossible to dynamically build any interesting expression; QUASIQUOTE and UNQUOTE allow for non-trivial use of source code.

However, I think that we can and must go beyond the insight that JG brings: conversely, there needs be a mechanism to deconstruct source expressions, whether made by QUOTE, KWOTE, QUASIQUOTE, or whatever, or else, the only thing you can do with source code is EVALuate it within a `(context ,[]); that is, you end up with write-only metaprogramming: indeed, if source-code cannot be pattern-matched, it becomes a blackbox that can only be assembled into bigger blackboxes nd ultimately evaluated or discarded. Any code "reading", any analysis and making sense of code, any use of code as first-class argument to a metaprogram cannot happen on QUOTEd text; it must happen on an upstream encoding. If this source code encoding isn't a standard part of the language, inter-metaprogrammer cooperation is prevented as each metaprogrammer rolls his own ad-hoc source code encoding. And if it becomes a standard part of the language, then the former QUOTE is but overhead and the upstream encoding is the real useful QUOTEd text representation.

Lisp solves the problem by standardizing on source expressions as CONS-lists, that you can arbitrarily construct and deconstruct, so you can build QUASIQUOTE, UNQUOTE, and source deconstructors from lower-level primitives. The downside is said low-levelness, which might (or not) get in the way, depending on what you're trying to do. In any case, let's say that SEXP as CONS-lists are sometimes not adapted to source-code representation (they don't track line-numbers/origin/foo for debugging/reverse analysis purpose; they are sometimes not fit for optimized domain-specific representations; etc). Absence of KWOTE in modern Lisps (well, some CL allow to write not only circular structures, but also functions) means that even then, the last step of a metaprogram (running) is also write-only.

I feel that the "right abstraction level" would be to standardize on QUASIQUOTE/UNQUOTE/QUOTE so as to construct code and to have have pattern-matching of quasiquoted patterns for deconstruction of source code. My pattern-matcher package for CL and corresponding QUASIQUOTE reimplementation allows for that.

m4 can dynamically change quote characters, but has no KWOTE function, which is particularly horrible since its evaluation mechanism will dynamically parse function definitions with whatever quote character is current, so that in practice, you may not lightly mix functions defined with different quote sets. Lexical quasiquotation is also hell to achieve since you never know how many times a given text will be parsed, and will have a hell of a time making dynamic computations on strings that include quote characters (it is nonetheless possible). AFAIK, only REBOL is braindead enough to dynamically parse function text like m4 does!

Lisp with macros and reader macros, Forth with input buffer access from IMMEDIATE words, have mechanisms not just for arbitrary user-defined quoting (as opposed to kwoting), but also for syntactical extension and general metaprogramming at compile time; plus compile time can be dynamic. But code inspection, while possible (INSPECT) SEE has no standardized result in any way.

Fortran with Hollerith-strings, Shells, Perl, and more, with <<, all have mechanisms for quoting arbitrary text into strings, which can in term be used to transform source code into a crude representation of it in a constant (well ok, actually logarithmic) number of character insertions at two places. Shells and Perl can arbitrarily manipulate such strings and eval them. I've done much too much metaprogramming with zsh myself.

Quoting is all about building a way to name an object that will be understood in a different context that doesn't share all the knowledge of the current context. It is a form of reification. Obviously, deeply related to the notion of quotation is that of what context is preserved in such reification: what parts of the system state are to be considered implicit, external, and what parts of the system state are to be considered explicit, internal, that require visible reification.

"Quoting" so as to communicate with an interactive debugger on same host is not the same as "quoting" so as to communicate with another equal node on a distributed system, which is not the same as serializing for use on an unknown untrusted and untrusting host external to the system. Modalities of quoting can get hairier if you're developing meta^n-tools with complex sharing of knowledge or lack thereof between various systems and metasystems (e.g. building a dynamic banking system with trust-preserving protocols that involves various embedded computers in terminals, cards, etc).

The only correct base-level equation I know about quotation is: (EVAL (KWOTE X)) = X As for the meta-level equations (looking inside the quoted text), they are but the denotational semantics for EVAL as expressed in terms of the quote-compatible source structure, e.g.: (EVAL (CONS X Y)) = (APPLY (EVAL X) (MAP EVAL Y)) (the above equations, for the sake of simplificity, assume the context of a pure functional 1-Lisp with a total KWOTE function). Maybe we can have just EVAL = UNQUOTE, as is suggested by Jean Goubault's paper.